依托微语篇,探究高中英语阅读中的语言知识在单元的主题意义

2020-02-10 03:02:52 英语学习·教师版 2020年1期

摘 要:一线高中英语教师在新课标的指引下,进行着大量的课堂教学改革。但由于课堂教学改革中还存在着各种局限性,导致部分教师在阅读教学中对语言知识的学习理解、应用实践和迁移创新三方面的理解还存在一定偏差。鉴于此,笔者以一堂市级公开课为例,就英语学习活动观进行了反思:依托微语篇,探索高中英语阅读中的语言知识在单元的主题意义。

关键词:阅读;语言知识;微语篇;单元主题意义

问题的提出

随着《普通高中英语课程标准(2017年版)》(以下简称《课标》)的颁布和实施,一线教师在课堂上的教学改革不断深入,很多教师在阅读教学中针对语言知识进行了教学实践。但部分教师还受“以考定教”的思路影响,在阅读中处理、运用及拓展语言知识方面仍存在一些问题。

1. 语言知识的教学脱离单元主题意义

单元是承载主题意义的基本单位(梅德明、王蔷,2018),但部分教师在语言知识课中,仅简单机械地呈现历年高考真题、模拟题,堆砌各种时事新闻、热点话题或学生身边的故事,再简单处理阅读中的语言知识。这种主题多元化下的语言知识教学脱离了单元主题,影响单元主题意义的整体性与阅读教学的延续性,不利于对单元主题的挖掘。

2. 语言知识所依托的语篇杂乱无章

部分教师往往会在阅读课第一课时根据话题梳理文章的信息、内容和思想,第二课时就直奔语言知识讲解,画出重点词块,挑出五六个最重要的词,然后从词典、互联网或报刊中找一些例句,根据该词的词性和常用搭配,设置同义句替换、补全句子、选词填空或英汉互译等形式的课堂练习,就语言知识本身反复操练。这种教学设计缺乏对语篇的整体分析,缺少对语言知识所承载的意义的挖掘,由此导致语言知识的教学脱离单元主题意义。

3. 语言知识的单元目标不明确

在开展语言知识教学时,教师应在《课标》的指导下分析学生的现状与需求,有效整合单元各个板块的教学内容,确定阅读中的语言知识在单元内的教学目标,而不能只要求学生掌握阅读中的几个核心词汇、短语或句型,认为在输出时能用到几个核心词块就达成了目标。

微语篇、语言知识和单元主题意义三者概念的界定

所有的语言学习活动都应该在一定的主题语境下进行,即围绕某一具体的主题语境,基于不同类型的语篇,在解决问题的过程中,运用语言技能获取、梳理、整合语言知识和文化知识,深化对语言的理解,重视对语篇的赏析,比较和探究文化内涵,汲取文化精华(中华人民共和国教育部,2018)。

因此,在开展阅读中对语言知识的学习与理解、运用与实践时,教师可以结合相关材料,创设一个与阅读文本主题意义类似,且语言知识尽可能涵盖在内的新语篇——微语篇,使学生在单元主题意义的引领下整合词汇、语法、语篇和语用知识等语言知识,发展综合语言运用能力,关注语言知识的表意功能,搭建“脚手架”,由此对教材中单元的主题意义进行迁移。

教学经过及反思

本课例是一节市级公开课,内容是译林版《牛津高中英语》Module 6 Unit 4主阅读The UN—Bring Everyone Closer Together。通过分析本课例所设的教学环节,笔者提炼出的教学思路大致如下:

执教教师通过开展学习理解活动、应用实践活动、迁移创新活动来践行英语学习活动观。其中,学习理解活动作为阅读文本中语言知识的热身,旨在回归教材,让学生初步学习与理解核心词汇在阅读文本中的含义;应用实践活动是教学重点,教师借助预设的微语篇,通过相关活动引导学生运用语言知识;迁移创新活动是教学难点,教师设置新情景,引导学生进行合理联想,解决实际问题。

课例设计思路清晰,所选素材新鲜,提炼出的语言知识重点突出,但主题意义的统领有形式无内容,操练和运用语言知识的活动碎片化,难以引导学生探索语言知识在单元主题中的意义。下面笔者以对该课例的反思为例,依托微语篇,探究高中英语阅读中的语言知识在单元中的主题意义。具体教学经过及反思如下:

1. 学习理解

(1)初次备课

Step 1. 教师提问:What are the UNs functions?

[设计意图]

此环节作为本节课的主题导入,是对阅读第一课时的自然过渡,旨在通过问答活动,让学生温习联合国的四个主要职能。

Step 2. 教师板书填空活动:More information about the UN。

① The UN refers to the United Nations, which is _____ countries to _____ world peace.

② The UN was _____ in 1945 and 192 countries _____ the UN.

③ The UN has four functions, which touches the lives of people. The UN protects human rights and improves international laws, those on child labor and on _____ rights for minorities and women…

[設计意图]

教师在此环节补充了关于联合国的信息,目的是想引导学生巩固以下词块:made up of, promote; set up, belong to; equal; apart from, lack of, ensure, available; honoured, take on, voluntary, draw, attention; contributed, acquire, expand, transform, provide, under the umbrella。

此環节要求学生补全信息,进一步拓展学生对联合国基本信息的了解。教师呈现的语篇凝练了原阅读文本,让学生在概括性的文本中梳理出重点语言知识,从而检测学生对语言知识的掌握情况。

Step 3. 教师板书填空巩固练习。

① I feel very honoured to have been able to _____ the leading role in the new play.

② The ability to use a language can _____ only by the act of using the language.

⑥ She needs her new, busy work to_____ her family.

[设计意图]

教师设计了巩固性练习,要求学生利用课本中重点考纲词汇的正确形式填空,再次检验学生对take on、be acquired、promoting、has expanded、to ensure、provide for的了解程度。

Step 4. 教师进行课文复现。

① I am pleased to have this chance today to talk to you about the United Nations, or the UN, as it is more often referred to. (Line 2)

② With the help of these armies and other worthy organizations, the UN assists the victims of wars and diseases.(Line 20)

③ … worthwhile… (Line 40)

④ … equal…(Line 22)

⑤ … contributed… (Line 35)

⑥ … lack of… (Line 43)

[设计意图]

此环节要求学生在文本中找到并齐声诵读上述句子,关注本节课要讲的六个核心词块。

[反思]

初次备课的教学设计列举了文本中高频的考纲词汇,教师依托课文文本和补充语篇,用挖空、选词填空或课文原词再现的形式呈现,有利于学生回顾文本的信息、内容与思想。但这种教学设计易使学生在学习中偏重语言知识,而非语言知识所承载的意义,而且会导致语言知识的教学环节偏多,教学重点不突出。

其中,Step 1的教学主题是联合国的功能,Step 2的教学主题变为对联合国相关信息的介绍,Step 3的教学主题涉及做事、学习、社会与文化、社会服务与人际沟通等,主题多样化造成学生思维转变频繁,加重了学生的学习负担。

本单元主题是“Helping people around the world”,而阅读文本的标题是The UN—Bringing Everyone Closer Together。因此,教师在第二课时可以通过补充语篇使二者相互联系,具体阐释联合国是如何帮助我们身边的人,从而在单元的主题意义中探索语言知识教学。

笔者认为阅读文本中语言知识的核心词汇应为refer、lack、worthy、equal、contribute。教师在重构文本的微语篇时,不仅要保证篇幅短小精悍,还应高度概括文本信息、内容和思想。鉴于此,笔者经反思后,重新进行了教学设计。

(2)再次备课

Tang Ning feels very honoured to talk to us about the UN, as it is more often r_____ to. The UN has four main functions, which is to not only assist the victims of wars and disasters with the help of some w_____ organizations or armies, but also help protect human rights and works, especially the e_____ rights for minorities and women. Therefore, she pays some visits to countries, having programmes of the UN, to increase peoples knowledge of the work of it, and to encourage people to work for them or make the local people a_____ more attention to the situation. For example, some women in Africa organized a group to a_____ material to make baskets and then sell them for a profit, which c_____ to transforming their lives. The UN also helps countries with other problems such as l_____ of education, starvation, disasters and so on. Through the w_____ of UN, the world has been brought closer together.

(答案:referred; worthy; equal; attach; acquire; contributes; lack; work)

[设计意图]

The UN—Bringing Everyone Closer Together是一篇演讲稿,不仅介绍了联合国成立的背景、职能,还解释了Tang Ning作为联合国的亲善大使所要履行的相关职责:增加人们对联合国的了解,吸引人们对联合国所做项目的关注,从而帮助有需求的国家及人民。而再次备课的文本是对该演讲稿内容、语言和思维的高度浓缩。

阅读课第二课时的第一环节为学习与理解语言知识,其主要意图是温故知新。因此教学活动应具备三个特点:重构的文本应该是第一课时所学文本思想内容的高度概括,篇幅应简短精干;凸显本节课学习重点的挖空处应该少而精,挖空处应该是教师重点教授的语言或修辞;作为高中英语学习的重点,动词或其他形式转化为动词应是本节课语言学习的重心(王为忠,2018)。

2. 應用实践

(1)初次备课

Step 1. Who is he? (Next UN Secretary-General )(见表1)

When people refer to Guterres work achievement, he has a reputation of clean governance and strict administration. What he has done is referred to as a great contribution to UNHCR, which refers to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (联合国难民事务高级专员). As its head, he has effectively led it during the greatest migration crisis facing Europe after World War II.

Guterres strong performance answering questions before the General Assembly without referring to his notes had already helped him to rank the first place among the 13 candidates applying for the job in the Security Council.

Note: reference n. 提及,涉及;参考

① Point out the meaning of refer related in the article.

A. to look at sth. or ask sb. for information

B. to mention or talk about sb. or sth.

C. to describe or be connected to sb. or sth.

D. be seen / thought of as…

(答案:referring to; refer to; refers to; is referred to as)

② In reference to your question about cost, the tickets for the film are 35 yuan each.(Translation)

⑥ The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without _____ his notes.

A. bringing up B. referring to

C. looking for D. trying on

(答案:B)

[设计意图]

授课教师补充微语篇,介绍当时即将上任的联合国秘书长古特雷斯的个人信息和相关经历,在微语篇中呈现与refer相关的语言知识,然后利用配对、翻译、补全句子、单项选择等练习形式进行with / in regard to、reference book、referred to、refer… as等语言知识的拓展训练,使学生了解refer的名词形式、意义、搭配、近义词及近义短语。

Step 2.

“After years in exile (流放), refugees (难民的) living conditions are terrible because of (a) lack of resources. I have met middle-class families with children who are surviving on the streets and praying to make it through the winter. Well over half of Syrian refugees in Lebanon are lacking in secure places to live. And a survey of 40,000 Syrian families in Jordan found that two-thirds lacked basic things for daily life. One father of four compared life as a refugee to being stuck in quicksand (流沙) —every time you move, you sink down further. For lack of funds, there just isnt enough assistance to provide for Syrian refugees.”

(以上文本改编自UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres—Written Text of Speech to the UN Security Council—26 February 2015)

① Since he _____ experience, he didnt get the job.

⑤Though _____ money, he managed to start his own business.

A. lacked B. to lack

C. lacking D. being lacked

(答案:lacked / was lacking in; C)

[设计意图]

教师设计了同义句替换联系,涉及lacked、was lacking in、for lack of、(a) lack of的相关词块。此外,教师进一步在微语篇中介绍古特雷斯的特殊经历,使学生对他产生更深入的认识,并利用练习引导学生学习和lack相关的语言知识。

Step 3. Why him? Next UN Secretary-General.

IOC and UNHCR advocate people contributing to (contribute to捐助,貢献) refugees.

Wars contribute to (导致,促成) their abandoning their hometown.

① She contributed a number of articles to the magazine. (Translate contributed to in Chinese.)

⑥ — What do you think of the new law made by the government?

— As far as Im concerned, it will_____ the peace of our country.

A. reply to B. refer to

C. contribute to D. appeal to

(答案:投(稿);C)

[设计意图]

在介绍完古特雷斯的主要个人信息和经历后(即Who的问题),教师对古特雷斯为什么能胜任联合国秘书长这一职位进行说明(即Why的问题),初步解释他的主张、能力及对世界所做的贡献。之后的翻译、补全句子、选择题等练习意在让学生学习contribute的相关语言知识。

Step 4.

“While every refugees story is different, they all share equal courage—the courage not only to survive, but also to rebuild their broken lives.” —António Guterres

He is equal to (be qualified for) the job, and nobody can be equal to(compare with / match / equal) him in his contributions to work.

He believes that there should be equality between the refugees and us.

Note: equality n.平等

① 人生来平等,应该同等对待。

People are born _____ and should be treated _______ .

② 这租金相当于他半个月的收入。

The rent _____ half his monthly income.

③ 汉译英:我相信你能胜任这项任务。

(答案:equal, equally;is equal to;I am sure that you are equal to this task.)

[设计意图]

本环节教师利用古特雷斯的讲话及人们对他的评价,再次解释他为什么能胜任联合国秘书长一职,并通过练习拓展与equal相关的语言知识。

Step 5.

教师展示社交媒体新闻截图(见图1、图2)。

Note:

it is worthy of + being done / to be done / n.

be worth + n. / doing sth.

it is worthwhile to do / doing sth.

① This article is well _____ reading but it is not _____ of being translated.

A. worth; worthwhile

B. worth; worth

C. worthy; worthy

D. worth; worthy

②汉译英: 这个建议值得认真考虑。

(答案:D;②略)

[设计意图]

教师利用社会对古特雷斯当选新任联合国秘书长的评价来总结他能担任这一职务的原因,并利用worthy的同一句式来表达这一意义。

[反思]

围绕refer、lack、contribute、worth和 equal这五个核心词汇,教师创设了五个微语篇,并通过“Who is he?”和“Why him?”这两个问题作为主线,分别来说明古特雷斯的身份,从不同角度阐释他当选新任联合国秘书长的理由。教师设置了英汉互译、同义词替换、补全句子、选择题和配对等形式的练习来检测语言知识。

但是,这木几个微语篇及其语言知识的练习语境主题不一致,语言知识的讲解还没有摆脱传统方式的束缚,教师力争面面俱到,训练和巩固手段多样,看似有主题语境,但多元化的主题使得各信息点之间的联系不多,学生在学习过程中无法通过一条主线来贯穿整节课的完整内容,不利于培养学生的整体性思维。

鉴于此,笔者直接依据“Who is he?”和“Why him?”两条主线,分别创设微语篇,把五个核心词汇及其相关的词性与常用搭配融入其中,复现在学习理解环节中所学的语言知识,主要的教学目标依然是让学生对古特雷斯有更深入的了解,从思想、经历、能力等方面思考古特雷斯胜任这一职务的原因。

基于这些思考,笔者依据有关古特雷斯的时事新闻或讲话,再次创设了微语篇,构思了新的教案。

(2)再次备课

Step 1. Who is he? Next UN Secretary-General.

① Fill in the blanks with proper words.

In _____ (refer) to who António Guterres is, here is a brief introduction about him. Gutterres, a 67-yearold politician, served as UN High Commissioner for Refugees from June 2005 to December 2015. Before joining the UN refugee agency, Gutterres spent more than 20 years in government and public service. He was the prime minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002.

When people _____ (refer) Guterres work achievement, he has a reputation of clean governance and strict administration. What he has done is referred to as a great contribution to UNHCR, which _____ (refer) the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(联合國难民事务高级专员). As its head, he has effectively led it during the greatest migration crisis facing Europe after World War II.

Guterres strong performance answering questions before the General Assembly without _____ (refer) his notes had already helped him to rank the first place among the 13 candidates applying for the job in the Security Council.

(答案:reference ;refer to;refers to;referring to)

② Match the meanings of refer related to the article with the proper one.

A. to look at sth. or ask sb. for information

B. to mention or talk about sb. or sth.

C. to describe or be connected to sb. or sth.

D. be seen / thought of as

③Fill in the blanks with proper words.

“After years in exile (流放), refugees (难民) living conditions are terrible because of _____ (lack) resources. I have met middle-class families with children who are surviving on the streets and praying to make it through the winter. Well over half of Syrian refugees in Lebanon _ ___ _ (lack) secure places to live. And a survey of 40,000 Syrian families in Jordan found that two-thirds _____(lack) basic things for daily life. One father of four compared life as a refugee to being stuck in quicksand (流沙) —every time you move, you sink down further. _____ (lack) funds, there just isnt enough assistance to provide for Syrian refugees.”

(以上文本改编自UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres—Written text of speech to the UN Security Council—26 February 2015)

(参考答案:(a) lack of;are lacking in;lacked;For lack of)

Step 2 Why him? (Next UN Secretary-General)

One reason for this is that he holds the belief that people are born _____ and should be treated _____ . Also, he believes that there should be _____ between the refugees and us. Therefore, it is obvious that he _ __ __ the job.

Nobody can be equal to him in his_____ to work. To begin with, Guterres will make great _____ to serving the global community with dedication, as a moral authority, and _____ to a result that he will be the voice of our collective conscience and humanity, throughout his term. In addition, he _____ a number of articles_____ the magazine to call on the public to work as a convener, a mediator, a bridgebuilder and an honest broker to help find solutions that benefit everyone involved in trouble, thus _____ the peace of the world.

All in all, Guterres is _____ of being chosen as the next UNSC. It is _____ electing him as the UNSC to address the insecurity and uncertainties of todays world. And it is _____ to trust him in making the UN function well and help those in need as many as possible.

(答案: equal;equally;equality;is equal to;contributions;contributions contribute ;contributed;to;contributing to;worthy;worth;worthwhile)

[设计意图]

在讲解拓展单元主题的微语篇时,笔者借助问题,把文本中的重要语言知识自然地凸显了出来,通过问答、讨论使学生反复琢磨equal、contribute、worth等词的语音、语义及语用,让学生们始终浸润在联合国的用人之道中,感悟古特雷斯的人格魅力及其为帮助世界各国及人民更好地发展和生活而作出的贡献,由此潜移默化地培养学生的世界观、人生观和价值观,实现了英语学科的育人价值。

3. 迁移与创新

(1)初次备课

Chinese President Xi Jinping believes Guterres will keep his commitment to the UN Charter and work with the international community to deal with global challenges, safeguard world peace, promote common development and contribute to world cooperation.

Referring to China and Portugal, Xi holds the belief that the two countries enjoy a traditional friendship with equal political trust and there is never lack of strengthened cooperation in various areas.

It is worthwhile working with Portugal to push forward the friendly and cooperative relations between the two countries.

教師要求学生先完成上述的语篇填空任务,然后完成Letter of congratulations on Guterres的写作任务,并要求作文包括以下两方面内容:①What are the existing problems?②What do you expect the UN to do?(教师提供了22个目标语言知识,供学生参考。)

[设计意图]

教师在本环节中概括了“Who is he?”和“Why him?”两个问题,在微语篇中串联并总结了本节课的核心词汇,然后要求学生思考当今世界面对的主要问题,希望联合国秘书长针对这些问题提供哪些援助,并尽可能多地利用本节课的语言知识形成书面的输出内容。

[反思]

初次备课中,教师要求学生补全微语篇,进而让学生分析当今世界面临哪些问题,及学生期望联合国秘书长带领联合国如何去提供帮助,并要求学生尽可能多地使用本节课的语言知识完成写作任务。该写作主题有内容和语言支架,但不能引起学生的兴趣,限制了学生的思维。

语言知识的输出可依托文本和补充阅读的信息、内容和思想来作为支架,通过深度理解阅读文本来训练学生的迁移与创新能力。在初次备课的教学设计中,教师尝试培养学生建构国际视野,学习中外优秀文化知识,并学会理性看待中国与联合国的关系,思考联合国在世界范围内所起的具体作用,教学实质就是探索阅读中的语言知识在单元的主题意义。笔者整合了本单元Task中的写作内容,对公开课的教案进行了再设计。

(2)再次备课

Step 1. Fill in the blanks with proper words.

Chinese President Xi Jinping believes Guterres will keep his commitment to the UN Charter and work with the international community to deal with global challenges, safeguard world peace, promote common development and _________ world cooperation.

_________ China and Portugal, Xi holds the belief that the two countries enjoy a traditional friendship with_________ political trust and there is never_________ strengthened cooperation in various areas.

It is _________ working with Portugal to push forward the friendly and cooperative relations between the two countries, Xi said.

(答案:contribute to;Referring to;equal;lack of;worthwhile)

Step 2. Writing a proposal

① Is Guterres really equal to the UNSC? Why or why not?

② What serious problems, which need Guterres help, are China faced with?

③ Suppose you were Guterres, you were asked to pay a visit to China and write a proposal to China about how to help address one of the serious problems discussed in your group.

Title:_________________________

Group members:________________

Introduction of the problem:

________________________________________________________________________________________________

Wed like to help _______________ by _________________________________________________________________________________________________

Benefits:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I am glad that I am invited to visit China. And it is a great honour to give some suggestions on how to address ________________. I hope__________________ can be coped with early. Thank you.

[設计意图]

语言知识的输出活动能够给学生搭建思维的舞台,展示、拓展和提高逻辑、批判和创新思维能力。笔者设计的三个问题循序渐进,在口头讨论和书面表达中训练学生的逻辑思维,首先引导学生思考古特雷斯是否真正适合联合国秘书长一职,一方面总结微语篇的信息和内容,另一方面培养学生的批判思维;然后笔者创设情境,让学生思考中国面临哪些严峻问题,并站在联合国秘书长的角度提供建议,这有利于让学生深度理解联合国的功能和职责,就帮助发展中国家发展、促进全球合作、维护世界和平提出自己创造性的见解,开拓国际视野,最终实现语言知识在单元主题意义中的功能。

结语

语言知识的学习,应该是一个解剖意义、内化意义、构建意义的过程。在这个过程中,教师依托微语篇,在阅读教学中借助新创设的语境,以文本中核心语言知识为明线,以主题意义为暗线,探索课文的主题意义,同时也拓展主题的宽度、深度、广度。以明线和暗线两个维度为支撑,挖掘课文和微语篇的主题关联,凸显出单元主题意义和内涵,在主题意义的构建中培养了学生的语言能力、思维能力,也帮助学生树立了正确的价值观。

参考文献

梅德明,王蔷. 2018. 普通高中英语课程标准(2017年版)解读[M]. 北京:人民教育出版社.

王为忠. 2018. 话题视角下高中英语阅读课第二课时的磨课实践[J]. 中小学外语教学(中学篇), (8):29-34

中华人民共和国教育部. 2018. 普通高中英语课程标准(2017年版)[S]. 北京:人民教育出版社.

王俊,江苏省南京市大厂高级中学英语教师。

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