英语读写任务型作文写作技法指导

2020-02-10 06:02:46 中学课程辅导·高考版 2020年2期

江苏高考英语的书面表达,连续七年采取读写任务型作文的形式。经过多年的磨炼,对于一般性的作文,考生通常游刃有余。然而,对读写任务型作文中的概括部分,许多考生仍然无法很好地把握,其核心的问题是30个词的概括该怎么写?

读写任务型作文的概括,就其表面来看,它仅仅是整篇作文中的一小部分,但它却关系到整篇文章给阅卷老师的第一印象和全文的得分,不可疏忽。

一、江苏高考英语书面表达的题型特点

1. 概括

1) 概括一个段落。

2) 概括一篇文章。

2. 发表观点或看法

1) 表明自己的观点。

2) 阐述原因,举例例证。

二、解题技巧

1. 考生首先应该仔细审题,确定文章的文体,从而根据文体来确定作文的开头

① 故事性阅读材料,应用最简练的语言来说明故事讲述了什么,不能拖泥带水,而且最好讲述故事给予的启示或其中的一个道理。

The passage is about...

The writer tells us about...

The author tells us that...

The story is about...

② 如果是议论文的阅读材料,则要尽可能客观简单地转述阅读材料的观点。

The passage mainly tells us / talks about...

We can know from the passage...

As far as the author is concerned...

③ 如果是說明文的阅读材料,就必须用概括性的文字来说明某种现象。

Its stated in the article that...

According to the passage, the author states that...

In the passage, the author states that...

2. 要抓住主要信息,不要面面俱到

快速阅读,找出文章的中心词,中心词一般在文章的开头、中间或结尾的部分。在内容上,我们要抓住文章的主要信息点,省去详细的例子、细节。

3. 要自创,不要抄袭原文原句

引用原文的词句,不能添加自己的见解,但要用自己的话转述,在语言上注意改变措辞,不要原句抄袭。

4. 要有限度,不要超过规定词数

在长度上:概括只需 30词左右,即用两到三个句子就足以表述。

5. 要有衔接,不要上下文断裂

在行文上:做好与下文的衔接,既要概写,还要考虑与下文的衔接。

【经典导引】

Time to Give Thanks

When it comes to Thanksgiving, turkey may be the first thing that comes to mind. Its the right picture, but its not complete.

Celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November every year, Thanksgiving Day is a time for thanksgiving and feasts. Its about expressing your gratitude to the important people and all the good things in your life.

Americans celebrate Thanksgiving with much warmth and keep many traditional customs. Here we introduce two of the rules Americans typically follow on this day.

1. Time for prayers and paying back

Thanksgiving Day has been associated with prayers in church and in homes for centuries. Attending church prayers services in the morning is the first step of many celebrators on Thanksgiving Day. The churches provide worship (礼拜) services and organize special events for the occasion.

Before Thanksgiving meals, some families gather together and read prayers to thank God for his kindness and the gifts he has bestowed upon (给予) them in the form of friends and family.

Some people also do voluntary community work on this day, as a way of paying back.

2. Family reunions and showing gratitude

Like Chinas Spring Festival, preparing a big meal and bringing the family together at home is a longstanding tradition of Thanksgiving. Distances dont really matter as relatives return home to be with their family, no matter how far away.

[写作内容]

1. 用约30个词写出上文概要。

2. 用约120个词谈谈你对感恩的想法,内容包括:

(1) 你认为我们中国人有没有必要过感恩节?为什么?

(2) 以你自己的经历或者身边的人为例,阐述重视感恩的重要性。

(3) 总结你的观点。

[写作要求]

1. 可以支持文中任一观点,但必须提供理由或论据。

2. 阐述观点或提供论据时,不能直接引用原文语句。

3. 不必写标题。

[评分标准]

内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。

【范文】

This passage is mainly about the custom of a western traditional festival, Thanksgiving Day, which mainly includes the two rules that Americans usually abide by during the festival.

After reading the passage, I had a better understanding of Thanksgiving Day. In my opinion, since the festival has a lovely and healthy theme, why not do as the Americans do? Dont you think giving thanks to things and people around us is very necessary. We cant deny it is a good chance to spread kindness and consideration.

Take myself for example. Because I am busy studying on weekdays, I have little time to look after my parents, which makes me guilty. In order to reward them and make them relaxed on weekends, I get up early in the morning and prepare breakfast for them willingly, which makes them delighted.

So it is vital for us to have a grateful heart and show our thanks to anything good and any person that is nice.

三、寫作探讨

1. 在确保用词准确的前提下要善于使用高级词汇:

写作很能反映出一个学生英语基础知识储备量的多少,也是学生英语水平高低的一个重要标准,在运用所掌握的词汇写作时,首先要做到用词准确,所选词汇能准确传达信息。还要词汇丰富,而不是反复使用一些常见的最简单的词汇,这样会导致整篇文章无力,缺少亮点,得分也很难上去。要想达到书面表达用词多样化,就要多掌握同一概念能在大脑中出现的第二甚至第三反应词,用高级的词汇去替代第一时间反应出来的较为常见的低级词汇。例如:

普通词汇替换词(高级词汇)

聪明的cleversmart, intelligent

越来越more and moreincreasing, growing

好,非常棒 goodwonderful, outstanding, marvelous, amazing

认为 I think it is widely accepted that; as far as I am concerned; in my opinion

重视 pay attention toattach importance to

非常,相当 very (much)extremely, rather, badly, desperately

但是,然而 butnonetheless, nevertheless

记住 rememberbear / keep... in mind

首先 firstfirst of all, initially, primarily, first and foremost

写作典例:

(2019江苏高考)

Li Jiang: Have you heard this? A group of exchange students from the UK are visiting our school next month.

Su Hua: Yes, I have. Some are already recommending the traditional Chinese dress for the welcome ceremony.

Li Jiang: But it seems people have different opinions.

Su Hua: What do you think?

Li Jiang: I think its a good idea. Its an opportunity to make the Chinese culture better known to international students.

Su Hua: I agree. But we dont have to dress that way. Thats not our daily style. Besides, its not very convenient.

Li Jiang: You see. Its the Chinese culture that the British friends are coming for. Just the right occasion.

Su Hua: I prefer the school uniform. Its nice. Its also a better display of our school culture.

[寫作内容]

1.用约30个词概括上述信息的主要内容;

2.在上述场合,你是否倾向于穿中国传统服装?请说明理由(不少于两点)。

[写作要求]

1.写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句;

2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;

3.不必写标题。

[评分标准]

内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。

【范文】

Li Jiang and Su Hua dont agree on what to wear when greeting the British students. Li suggests traditional Chinese clothes while Su thinks the school uniforms are more suitable.

I prefer the school uniform to the traditional Chinese dress at the welcome ceremony next month. Although the traditional Chinese dress may look more beautiful and stylish, it is a little bit strange to walk around in it. We feel at ease in our school uniforms every day. Whats more, the traditional Chinese dress cant reflect the unique culture of our school. From the design and colour of our uniforms, the British friends will learn more about our school. Besides, the choice of the traditional Chinese dress means extra money, and extra time, for we have to change it back after the event.

So the school uniforms are a better choice than the traditional Chinese dress for such an occasion.

四、注意句式的变化

很多考生的作文句式单一、呆板,语言缺乏多样性和灵活性,这与高考作文要求考生的作文语言结构富于变化,错落有致相差甚远。要想使语言富于变化,考生在平时的学习中就要多多练习英语句型的改写或转换,为写作打好句型基础。

1. 改变句子开头

许多考生在平时的作文中往往会使用一些与人有关系的词汇,经常用一些名词或代词作为句子的开头,如:the expert, people, we, I, they, he等等。然而这种开头见多了,难免让人产生审美疲劳。试比较:

People in China have greatly demanded pork recently.

There is an increasing demand in China for pork recently.

第二句用there be 句型开头,这样既改变了“主语+谓语+宾语”的单调句型,又把想强调的意思凸现出来。

2. 巧用连接词

很多考生在作文中过多地使用简单句,成了简单句堆砌;有的写复杂句时,常常使用:so, and, then, but, or, however等。结果不仅不能达到丰富表达方式的目的,反而使句子单调,结构松散。为了避免这种现象,考生可以在平时的学习中试着使用一些连接词,尤其是一些表示从属关系的连接词,比如:who, which, that, when, where, although, while, whenever, unless等,不仅能够丰富句型,而且还能够把自己的想法表达得更加清楚、连贯。

Natural resources are very limited. They will be exhausted in the near future. It is not true. But it becomes a major concern around the world. This is a widely accepted fact.

这段文字用简单句表达,它们之间内在的逻辑关系含糊不清,意思支离破碎。如果使用连接词,将简单句与其前后合并,形成主次关系,就能把一个比较复杂的内容和关系表达清楚、使结构严谨。

It is a widely accepted fact that there is a major concern around the world for the exhaustion of limited resources in the near future, although it is unlikely to be true.

3. 利用倒装句式结构

英语的基本句型是:主语+谓语+宾语,如果偶尔打破常规,改变某一成分的位置,不仅可以丰富句型,而且能强调、突出被倒装的部分,取得意想不到的效果。

In no other place in the world can one find such enthusiasm for applying for hosting the 2008 Olympic Games.

Only by doing so can we live in harmony with the environment.

五、保持卷面整洁

英语书面表达毕竟是一项主观性试题,评分过程中难免会有很多主观因素。漂亮而又老道的字体,干净整洁的卷面会使人赏心悦目,无疑会给考生的作文增色不少。因此,考生在写作时要注意书写规范,字母均匀大小适中,字体工整,保持卷面整洁,忌潦草凌乱,乱涂乱改。在阅卷中经常会碰到一些好文章,但是没有得到五档分数,也就是21~25分,原因就在于字迹潦草且书写不规范,多少影响了阅卷人员的判断。但如果遇到很优美的字体,即使文章写得一般般,阅卷人员也往往会往同一档次的上档分数去打。

六、不留空白

有的考生缺乏自信,认为自己英语学得不好,写作能力差,干脆就放弃不写了,留下空白一片。根据高考评分原则和标准,我们知道,只要能写出一些和试题要求相关的词和句子,就不至于得零分。考生可以从比较简单的相对有把握的词和句子入手,按照要求写一写,这样就增加了得分的概率。考生切忌抄前面的完形填空或阅读理解的句子,甚至生搬硬套,写汉语拼音,企图蒙混过关,这样做只会白费笔墨,拿不到分数。

总之,英语的句式是多种多样的,要从表达的内容出发,合理选用,文章的句式就会富于变化。同时,在学习写作的过程中,考生应该不断练习构造各种各样的句式,以提高语言表达能力。任何事情都不可能一蹴而就,提高书面表达能力也是如此。因此,这要求同学们在英语写作上一定要循序渐进,日积月累,在英语阅读和背誦中不断积累英语语言知识。只有这样,才能厚积薄发,得心应手,从而在高考英语写作中取得理想的成绩。

(作者:潘井正,江苏省灌南高级中学)

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